January 15, 2018 to February 26, 2018
Project Location: 
Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
What's New?: 

Planning Meeting and Dry Run information is now available

Project Description: 

The  Southern  Ocean  (SO)  is  the  stormiest  place  on  Earth,  buffeted  by  winds  and  waves  that  circle  the  ice  of  Antarctica,  sheathed  in  clouds  that  mantle  a  dynamic  ocean  with  rich  ecosystems.  The  remote and usually pristine environment, typically removed from anthropogenic and natural continental  aerosol sources makes the SO unique for examining cloud-aerosol interactions for liquid and ice clouds,  and  the  role  of  primary  and  secondary  marine  biogenic  aerosols  and  sea-salt.    Weather  and  climate  models are challenged by uncertainties and biases in the simulation of SO clouds, aerosols, precipitation,  and  radiation  which  trace  to  poor  physical  understanding  of  these  processes,  and  by  cloud  feedbacks  (e.g.,  phase  changes)  in  response  to  warming.  Models  almost  universally  underestimate  sunlight  reflected  by  near  surface  cloud  in  the  Austral  summer,  particularly  in  the  cold  sector  of  cyclonic  storm  systems,  possibly  due  to  difficulties  in  representing  pervasive  supercooled  and  mixed-phase  boundary  layer (BL) clouds.

Motivated by these issues, a large international multi-agency effort called the Southern Ocean Clouds Radiation Transport Aerosol Transport Experimental Study  (SOCRATES) will be conducted to improve our understanding of clouds, aerosols, air-sea exchanges, and their interactions over the SO.