17 sites have been chosen in the 10x10km area surrounding the WLEF tower.  2 are in wetlands and will use the ISFS tripod towers, only to 4m height.  3 will iuse guyed Rohn towers from 13--20m.  The remaining 12 will be our first use of trailer-mounted telescoping towers (TT, below) to 32m, with the top instrumentation at about 33m.

Sites Lat Lon NCAR name Ameriflux name

Original name

Tower Type

NW1_pine_1 45.9720010 -90.3231720 NW1   10 Landa TT most sensors
NW2_poplar_1 45.9677333 -90.3087833 NW2   c Rohn-12m built, not level
NW3_tussock_1 45.9689167 -90.3010333 NW3   d PAM  
NW4_lake_1 45.9792500 -90.3004167 NW4   25lake ITS TT leveled
NW5_grass_1 45.9458333 -90.2943667 NW5   ISS MSU running
NE1_pine_2 45.9734833 -90.2723000 NE1   19 Landa TT leveled
NE2_larch_1 45.9557333 -90.2406000 NE2   k Landa TT most sensors
NE3_hardwood_1 45.9749000 -90.2327333 NE3   42W ITS box TT leveled
NE4_cedar_1 45.9618667 -90.2270333 NE4   l Landa TT most sensors
SW1_poplar_2 45.9149000 -90.3425000 SW1   e ITS box TT most sensors
SW2_poplar_3 45.9409000 -90.3177333 SW2   28 30m Rohn built, level
SW3_hardwood_2 45.9206670 -90.3099000 SW3   16W ITS TT leveled
SW4_hardwood_3 45.9392167 -90.2823167 SW4   11 Landa TT leveled
SE1_lake_2 45.9228833 -90.2728333 SE1   23lake MSU  
SE2_maple_1 45.9365167 -90.2640833 SE2   45 Landa "H" TT leveled
SE3_aspen_1 45.9271500 -90.2475000 SE3   h ITS gooseneck TT running w/most sensors
SE4_tussock_2 45.9244833 -90.2474500 SE4   g PAM running
SE5_aspen_2 45.9380833 -90.2381833 SE5   i Rohn-13m built, not level
SE6_pine_3 45.9197333 -90.2288333 SE6   8 ITS gooseneck TT most sensors



Most of the sites will be similarly instrumented.  At the top of each site's tower will be:

  • sonic anemomter and open-path infrared H20/CO2 gas analyzer (Campbell CSAT3AW/EC150) for turbulent fluxes
  • slow-response temperature/humidity sensor (NCAR SHT)
  • barometer (Vaisala PTB210)
  • 4-component radiometer (Hukseflux NR01)

In addtion, 2 more temperature sensors will be deployed, one at 2m and one at mid-canopy (where appropriate).  Also, soil sensors (NCAR 4-level Tsoil, Meter EC-5 Qsoil, REBS HFT Gsoil, and Hukseflux TP01 Csoil) will be deployed at one location in the 0--5cm layer near the base of the tower.


Since the forest canopy will severly reduce light reaching the ground, solar panels will only be used for power at the wetlands sites.  Gas generators also cannot be used due to their carbon emission.  Thus, we will manually exchange batteries, bringing them to the ISFS base trailer for recharging.  To reduce battery weight, we will use LiPO batteries for the first time.