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National Surface Meteorological Networks
   
Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) - The National Weather Service (NWS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Department of Defense operate this network of 967 stations located throughout the United States (26 in Ohio). The data generally available from ASOS stations includes hourly (and special) observations of air temperature, dew point, wind speed, wind direction, cloud cover, visibility, present weather, and precipitation. Via modem data can be obtained every minute (typically the most recent ~8 hours of observations are kept at the stations). For further information on the ASOS network visit the NWS ASOS home page or the FAA Automated Sensors home page.
   
Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) - The FAA and various state agencies (particularly Aviation Divisions of state Departments of Transportation) operate this network of 900 stations located throughout the United States (21 in Ohio). While data is generally available from 552 of these stations (2 in Ohio), the data from the other 348 stations (19 in Ohio) is currently only available via dialup modem (typically the most recent ~3 weeks of observations are kept at the stations). These stations typically provide 20-minute observations of air temperature, dew point, wind speed, wind direction, cloud cover, visibility, altimeter setting, present weather and precipitation. For further information on the AWOS network visit the FAA Automated Sensors home page.
   
Non-Automated METAR Reports - In addition to the ASOS and AWOS there are still a number of stations where the observations are taken manually. There are 216 such observation locations located throughout the United States (2 in Ohio). A large proportion of these observations are limited in some fashion (e.g. no observations at night or just one or two observations in a day). The parameters available vary from station to station, but most provide air temperature, dew point, wind speed, wind direction, cloud cover, and present weather.
   
NOAA/NWS Cooperative Observer Program - The NOAA/National Weather Service oversees this network with 9765 participating cooperative observers located throughout the United States (205 in Ohio). This network provides daily observations (7am local time) of maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, snowfall, and snow depth. Some stations also provide soil temperature, evaporation, and wind run. These data are archived at NOAA/NCDC. For further information visit the NOAA/NWS Cooperative Observer Program home page at: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/coop/index.htm.
   
Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) - This 'network' is comprised of weather stations operated by the general public and reported by amateur radio operators around the world. All observations are collected by the NOAA/Forecast Systems Laboratory (NOAA/FSL) and are included as part of their Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS). The network varies greatly in terms of data quality and completeness. Within the United States there are 1328 reporting stations (31 in Ohio). The parameters reported vary by station, but typically include air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, barometric pressure, and precipitation. For further information visit the CWOP home page.
   
Remote Automated Weather Station (RAWS) Network - The United States Forest Service oversees this network of stations owned and operated by state and local wildland fire agencies. The network typically provides hourly values of air temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, fuel temperature, and fuel moisture. The network consists of 726 stations located throughout the United States (1 in Ohio), but heavily concentrated in the forested areas of the western mountains. These data are included within the University of Utah MesoWest and the NOAA/FSL MADIS data sets. For further information visit the USFS RAWS home page at: http://www.fs.fed.us/raws/.
   
Hydrometeorological Automated Data System (HADS) - The NOAA Office of Hydrologic Development operates the HADS real-time data aquisition and data distribution system. HADS collects data from Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) operated by a number of federal, state, and local agencies throughout the US and a few nearby countries. The network currently includes 10079 observation locations (193 in Ohio). The temporal resolution and parameters collected vary widely by network and station but can include a variety of meteorological and hydrologic parameters. For further information visit the NWS HADS page.
   
Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) - The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) operates this network of 55 C-MAN stations with locations along coastlines throughout the US (1 in Ohio). The network typically provides hourly observations of air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust. Some stations also provide observations of sea water temperature, water level, waves, relative humidity, precipitation, and visibility. For further information visit the NDBC home page.
   
National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) Moored Buoy Network - The NDBC operates this network of 77 moored buoys with locations throughout the US coastal regions (1 off the coast of Ohio). The network typically provides hourly observations of air temperature, dew point, water temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, wave height, wave period, and swell. For further information visit the NDBC home page.
   
Regional Surface Meteorological Networks
   
Northeast Weather Association (NEWA) Network - The NERA is affiliated with the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program and operates this network of 46 weather stations primarily in western New York state (1 in Ohio). The network provides hourly observations of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, leaf wetness, and precipitation. Access to data from this network usually requires a subscription although such fees have been waived in the past (e.g. 2002). For further information visit the NEWA home page.
   
WHIO WeatherNet - WHIO-TV in Dayton, Ohio operates this network of 28 stations located primarily at schools in and around Dayton, Ohio (27 in Ohio). The network provides up to 1-minute observations of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, and barometric pressure. For further information visit the WHIO network page.
   
WTOL WeatherNet - WTOL-TV in Dayton, Ohio operates this network of 51 stations located primarily at schools throughout northwestern Ohio and southeastern Michigan (43 in Ohio). The network provides up to 1-minute observations of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, and barometric pressure. For further information visit the WTOL network page.
   
WANE WeatherNet - WANE-TV in Ft. Wayne, Indiana operates this network of 20 stations located primarily at schools throughout northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio (4 in Ohio). The network provides up to 1-minute observations of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, and barometric pressure. For further information visit the WANE network page.
WYTV WeatherNet - WYTV-TV in Youngstown, Ohio operates this network of 15 stations located primarily at schools throughout Ohio and western Pennsylvania (9 in Ohio). The network provides up to 1-minute observations of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, and barometric pressure. For further information visit the WYTV network page. No map yet.
   
State and Local Surface Meteorological Networks
   
Ohio Department of Transportation (DOT) Road and Weather Information System (RWIS) - The Ohio DOT operates this network of 69 weather stations along highways throughout the state of Ohio. The network provides variable (hourly or higher) resolution observations of air temperature, dew point, relative humidity, and wind speed. For further information visit the Ohio DOT RWIS page or the Surface Systems, Inc Road Weather page.
   
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) Network - The OARDC and Miami University operate this network of 12 stations located throughout the state of Ohio. The network provides hourly observations of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed, wind direction, and soil temperature at 5 and 10 cm depths. For further information visit the OARDC Network home page.
   
Scalia Lab Mesoscale Network Project - The Ohio University Scalia Lab Internet Center operates this network of 3 stations across southeastern Ohio. More stations are planned. The network provides 5-minute observations of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed, and wind direction. For further information visit the network page.
   
Ohio Air Monitoring Network - The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Division of Air Pollution Control Air Monitoring Section operates a network of air quality stations throughout the state of Ohio. It is not clear how many of these locations have available meteorological parameters. For further information visit the Air Monitoring Section page. No map.
   
WOIO WeatherNet - WOIO-TV in Cleveland, Ohio operates this network of 46 stations located primarily at schools throughout northern Ohio. The network provides up to 1-minute observations of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, and barometric pressure. For further information visit the WOIO network page.
   
WCMH WeatherNet - WCMH-TV in Columbus, Ohio operates this network of 60 stations located primarily at schools throughout central Ohio. The network provides up to 1-minute observations of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, and barometric pressure. For further information visit the WCMH network page.
   
Precipitation and Radar Networks
   
NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hourly Precipitation Data - NOAA/NCEP routinely develops a National Multi-sensor Hourly Precipitation Analysis (Stage II) data set from hourly radar precipitation estimates and from hourly gage reports. The gage data includes hourly observations from ~4000 gages across the US (126 in Ohio) collected by the NOAA River Forecast Centers and sent to NCEP. Further information on these data is available at: http://wwwt.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/ylin/pcpanl/.
   
NOAA/NWS Cooperative Observer 15-minute Precipitation Network - The NOAA/NWS routinely collects 15-minute observations of precipitation from Fisher-Porter and Universal rain gages operated by 2777 cooperative observers located throughout the US (104 in Ohio). These data are archived at NOAA/NCDC as data set TD 3260. For further information visit the NOAA/NCDC TD3260 page.
   
Integrated FLood Observing and Warning System (IFLOWS) Precipitation Network - The IFLOWS precipitation network is a collection of various state operated Automated Flood Warning System (AFWS) networks throughout the mid-Atlantic and northeastern portions of the United States. The network is comprised of 1530 precipitation stations that provide 15-minute observations of precipitation (164 in Ohio). These precipitation data are included as part of the NCEP Precipitation data set described above. For further information visit the IFLOWS home page.
   
Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) Network - The NOAA/NWS and the Department of Defense operate this network of 143 WSR-88D radars across the contiguous US (2 in Ohio). The Level II data are the three meteorological base data quantities (reflectivity, mean radial velocity, and spectrum width) and are recorded at all NWS and most DOD sites. Level II data are then processed in order to create a number of meteorological analysis products known as Level III data. Level III data are recorded at the NWS sites. The Level III products included base reflectivity, base spectrum width, base velocity, composite reflectivity, echo tops, velocity azimuth display (VAD) wind profile, vertically integrated liquid (VIL), 1-hour precipitation, storm total precipitation, hail index overlay, mesocyclone overlay, severe weather probability overlay, storm structure, storm tracking information overlay, and tornadic vortex signature overlay. All Level II and III data are archived at NOAA/NCDC. For further information visit the NOAA/NCDC Radar Resources page at: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/radar/radarresources.html or the NOAA Radar Operations Center at: http://www.roc.noaa.gov/.
   
Radiation and Flux Networks
   
None at present  
   
Soil Networks
   
Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) - The SCAN is operated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The network provides hourly observations of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation, precipitation, barometric pressure, snow water content, snow depth, soil temperature (at 2, 4, 8, 20, and 40 cm depths), and soil moisture (at 2, 4, 8, 20 and 40 cm depths). The 80 SCAN stations are located across the US in primarily agricultural regions (1 in Ohio). For further information visit the SCAN home page.
   
Hydrology Networks
   
United States Geological Survey (USGS) Streamflow Network - The USGS (part of the US Department of the Interior) operates this network of 7237 streamflow gages (130 in Ohio) at locations throughout the US. The network provides hourly or more frequent observations of stage (water level) from which discharge (flow) is computed using a stage-discharge rating relation. The rating is defined by occasional direct current-meter measurements of discharge. All data are available through the USGS and the district offices in each state. Many of these gages provide realtime data relayed via the GOES satellite data collection system. The realtime data are provisional data that have not been reviewed or edited. These realtime data may be subject to significant change and are not citeable until reviewed and approved by the USGS. Realtime data may be changed after review because the stage-discharge relationship may have been affected by: 1) backwater from ice or debris; 2) algal and aquatic growth in the stream; 3) sediment movement; and 4) malfunction of recording equipment. Each station record is considered provisional until the data are published. The data are usually published with 6 months of the end of the water year (1 October to 30 September). Data users are cautioned to consider carefully the provisional nature of the information before using it. For further information on the USGS streamflow network visit the USGS Water Resources of the United States page or the USGS Ohio District Office home page.
   
Integrated FLood Observing and Warning System (IFLOWS) Streamflow Network - The IFLOWS network is a collection of various state operated Automated Flood Warning System (AFWS) networks throughout the mid-Atlantic and northeastern portions of the United States. The network is comprised of 275 streamflow gages that provide 15-min stage observations (6 in Ohio). For further information visit the IFLOWS home page.
   
Upper Air Networks
   
NOAA/NWS Radiosonde Network Low Vertical Resolution Data - The NOAA/NWS typically releases radiosondes twice per day at 0000 and 1200 UTC at 69 locations throughout the US (1 in Ohio). During special weather situations the NWS can request to release additional radiosondes at off-times (e.g. 1800 UTC). The low resolution data is sent out over the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) and provides mandatory and significant level observations of pressure, altitude, temperature, dew point, wind speed, and wind direction. There are 3 types of radiosondes utilized within the US network, Vaisala, VIZ (or Sippican), and Microsonde. These data are archived by NOAA/NCDC and other organizations. For further information on the NWS Radiosonde network visit the NWS Upper-air Observations Program home page. A several year archive of GTS upper air data is available at the NOAA/FSL Radiosonde Database.
   
NOAA/NWS Radiosonde Network High Vertical Resolution Data - The same radiosonde locations mentioned in the previous data set also provide a 6-second vertical resolution data set that provides observations of pressure, temperature, altitude, relative humidity, and azimuth and elevation angles. UCAR/JOSS has developed software to derive 6-second vertical resolution winds from the angle data. These data are archived by NCDC and UCAR/JOSS.
   
Ground Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Demonstration Network (GPS-MET) - The NOAA/FSL ingests data from 323 GPS locations around the US operated by many different agencies (11 in Ohio). Typically each location provides 30-minute observations of integrated precipitatable water along with a number of surface meteorology parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, etc). For further information visit the GPS-MET home page.